The coronavirus death rate in Greater Manchester is a quarter higher than anywhere else in England and has caused life expectancy to decline by a combined three years in the North West.
A report by University College London – which lays bare how people in deprived areas have been hardest-hit by the pandemic – shows that life expectancy dropped 1.6 years for men and 1.2 years for women in the region last year compared to 1.3 years and 0.9 years in England as a whole.
Professor Michael Marmot, an expert on health inequalities who led the review, described the figures as ‘jaw dropping’.
He found that the more impoverished a local authority, the higher its mortality rate was.
The Covid death rate in the North West was 307 per 100,000 for men and 195 for women – compared to England’s overall rate of 233 per 100,000 for men and 142 for women. In some parts of Manchester the rates were even higher at 350 per 100,000 for men in Salford to over 200 for women in Tameside.
Although the report did not look at regions outwith the North West, official figures show that the wealthiest parts of the country have recorded five times lower Covid death rates.
Data released by the Office for National Statistics in May showed that Cambridge and West Suffolk are the least deprived areas in England.
Per 100,000 people, Cambridge has recorded just 70 Covid deaths, while East Cambridgeshire (97), South Cambridgeshire (101), and West Suffolk (112) figures were also very low, according to Government figures.
Meanwhile, figures from the Department of Health today show eight out of the 20 areas with the highest daily Covid death tolls were located in the North West.
Death rates were a more than a fifth higher in Greater Manchester than in the rest of England. The ten regions have an average death rate of 250 per 100,000, compared to the national average of 191.
The graph shows the number of men and women in different areas of Greater Manchester that died of Covid per 100,000 people from March 2020 to March 2021. Manchester, Salford and Tameside recorded the highest Covid death rate, according to the University College London report. The graph also shows that Greater Manchester as a whole had higher Covid death rates than the average across England (shown in the vertical dotted grey and black lines). Though the number of women dying in Stockport and men dying in Trafford, were below the national average
The graph shows the ratio of Covid-19 mortality by deprivation, comparing Greater Manchester (the green dotted line) with the expected Covid death rate in England and Wales (the black horizontal line). Overall, Covid mortality in Greater Manchester was 25 percent higher than the England and Wales average between March 2020 and January 2021. Mortality ratios in Greater Manchester were equally high in the three most deprived deciles and then decreased as the level of deprivation decreases
Compared to similar metropolitan counties, Greater Manchester had the third highest Covid mortality rates. The West Midlands recorded the most, with 266.5 deaths per 100,000 people, followed by Greater London (265.1) and Greater Manchester (261). Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear and West Yorkshire all also recorded more deaths on average
The graphs display the mortality rates from Covid and other causes for men (top graph) and women (bottom graph) in relation to how deprived an area is. They show that the more deprived areas recorded the highest mortality rate from the virus, as well as other conditions, and around twice as many deaths as the wealthiest regions. Other leading causes of death are dementia, Alzheimer’s and heart disease. In the most deprived areas, around 2,000 men and 1,400 women died per 100,000 people from March 2020 to February 2021, while in the least deprived areas, less than 1,000 men and 600 women died
HOVER OVER YOUR LOCAL AREA TO SEE HOW MANY DEATHS THERE HAVE BEEN DURING THE PANDEMIC
But, overall, Birmingham recorded the most deaths in the country, despite not being in the North West, suffering 2,696 since the start of the pandemic — a rate of 236.1 per 100,000 people. Its large toll is also likely to be linked to high deprivation levels. It was followed by Leeds (1,335), County Durham (1,260) and Liverpool (1,185).
For comparison, the Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands recorded just three and nine deaths to date respectively.
Covid, like all respiratory viruses, thrives in densely populated places where there is lots of social contact, which makes it easier for it to spread between people. This makes high deprivation areas a particular risk.
Third wave of infections will continue ‘for longer than expected’ because of England’s Euro 2020
Britain’s third wave of infections will continue ‘longer than expected’ because of England’s Euro 2020 success and surging cases of the Indian variant in staycation hotspots, a top expert has warned.
King’s College London‘s Covid symptom study estimated there were 25,210 new cases every day in the UK last week, up by almost a third (31 per cent) from the previous seven-day spell.
There said there was a 50 per cent increase in the number of partially or fully vaccinated people catching the virus — but in most cases their symptoms were mild and similar to a ‘bad cold’. More than 80 per cent of infections were among the unvaccinated.
Professor Tim Spector, who leads Britain’s biggest Covid surveillance study, warned fans meeting to watch the Euro 2020 tournament would almost certainly be fuelling a surge in infections.
He added holidaymakers heading to popular staycation destinations including Cornwall, Devon, Brighton and Bournemouth were also driving spiralling cases.
The top epidemiologist called on Britons to remain ‘extra vigilant’ and continue to follow measures such as wearing face masks and social distancing to limit the spread of the virus.
‘With the summer holidays approaching, we need to remain extra vigilant and avoid unnecessary risks,’ he said. ‘Euro 2020 has the potential to spread the virus among tens of thousands of fans, so I think because of these factors we’ll continue to see high rates for longer than expected.’
Fatalities are also higher in less wealthy areas where people tend to live close together and often work front-facing jobs.
Black minority and ethnic minority people have suffered higher death rates throughout the pandemic, meaning areas with large amounts of BAME residents are likely to greater death figures.
Professor Marmot’s report proposes that the government should invest in jobs, housing, local services and education to tackle these long-term problems.
It comes as the North West battles the biggest Covid outbreak in England, fuelled by the Indian ‘Delta’ variant.
The region recorded 21 deaths in the week up to June 18 — more than any other area of the country — according to figures released yesterday by the Office for National Statistics.
Separate data from the Department of Health shows that the region was responsible for 3,720 of the 14,608 infections recorded in England on Thursday.
So far, the North West has recorded more Covid deaths (18,056) than any other region of England, but it is closely followed by the South East (17,338).
Those areas are followed by London (15,636), the West Midlands (13,545), Yorkshire and the Humber (11,033) and the East Midlands (10,181).
The East (13,432), South West (6,800) and North East (5,986) have recorded the least deaths to date.
The IHE researchers found that the Covid-19 deaths in the North West are linked with deprivation.
The area is home to high numbers of people from ethnic minorities, which studies have shown die disproportionately from Covid compared to white people.
Factors including multi-generational housing or crowded conditions and having to continue working from a place of employment are experienced by lower income groups and lead to much higher risks of mortality.
Multi-generational housing can lead to higher deaths from the virus, as more people live in one household, increasing the risk of older family members catching the virus.
The researchers found that the average life expectancy for women in Greater Manchester was 81.7 years, while men were expected to live to 78.1. This is lower than the national averages of 83.4 years for women and 79.8 years for men.
The North West region as a whole had slightly better figures, with men living until they were around 78.3 and women living for around 82 year. But this is still lower than the national average.
The experts also found that the more deprived an area was, the higher mortality rates it recorded overall.
The North West was hit the hardest by the second wave and was put under special restrictions during the pandemic. Most recently, the former Health Secretary Matt Hancock implemented extra testing and vaccinations.
The researchers found that Greater Manchester as a whole had higher Covid death rates than the national average from March 2020 to March 2021, apart from the number of women dying in Stockport and men dying in Trafford, which were lower.
Compared to similar metropolitan counties, Greater Manchester had the third highest Covid mortality rates, with 261 deaths per 100,000 people. This was lower than the West Midlands (266.5) and Greater London (265.1).
The North West was also above the national average for Covid deaths, but not as high as those areas, with around 220 dying per 100,000 people.
Sir Marmot, who is known for his work on how social factors impact health, said if the Government is serious about levelling up health inequities, then equity of health and wellbeing must be at the heart of Government and business strategy rather then narrow economic goals.
He said the North West has experienced the highest rates of Covid-19 deaths in the country and ‘particularly damaging long-term economic and social effects’ due to prolonged lockdowns.
He told the Guardian: ‘As the UK emerges from the Covid-19 pandemic it would be a tragic mistake to attempt to re-establish the status quo that existed before – a status quo market in England, over the past decade, by a stagnation of health improvement that was second worst in Europe, and by widening health inequalities.’
Sir Marmot said the findings for Greater Manchester could be applied to other poor areas.
‘It’s pretty bad for life changes to live in poorer parts of London too. Levelling up shouldn’t only be about the Midlands and the Northeast and the Northwest. Deprived parts of London need attention as well,’ he said.
Andy Burnham, the Mayor of Greater Manchester, said: ‘The Covid pandemic has exposed and amplified the reality that many of our residents have lives, jobs and homes which worsen their health.
‘The pandemic has brutally exposed just how unequal England actually is. People have lived parallel lives over the last 18 months.
‘People in low-paid, insecure work have often had little choice in their level of exposure to Covid; and the risk of getting it and bringing it back home to those they live with.
‘Levelling up needs to start in the communities that have been hit hardest by the pandemic. To improve the nation’s physical and mental health, we need to start by giving all of fellow citizens a good job and good home.
‘We are grateful to Michael Marmot for showing how Greater Manchester can improve the health of our residents and we hope the Government will back us with the resources and powers to put better health at the heart of our recovery.’
Source: Daily Mail UK