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People in masks in front of St Peter's, Romeimage copyrightGetty Images

Europe’s vaccination campaign has been hit by delays and the number of infections is rising in many countries.

Lockdowns are once again coming into force, as governments take action against a third wave.

France: Third lockdown and closure of schools

New restrictions are being rolled out across the country.

Schools are closing and moving to remote learning at least until 26 April.

Non-essential shops across the country also have to close.

People will be allowed to exercise outdoors within 10km (6 miles) of their home but cannot travel to other parts of the country unless they have a valid reason. As in previous lockdowns, they will have to fill out a form to explain why they have left their homes.

There is a nationwide curfew between 19:00 and 06:00.

Man carrying chairs in Parisimage copyrightGetty Images
image captionParis bars have been closed since mid-October

Germany: Different regional rules

Germany has extended its current restrictions until 18 April but individual states are able to introduce their own rules.

Berlin is introducing nightly curfews for groups and further rules on social contacts.

But in the state of Saarland, in south-west of the country, outside restaurants, theatres, cinemas and gyms are allowed to open to customers who show a negative Covid test taken within the previous 24 hours.

Across Germany people must now wear clinical masks, such as single-use surgical masks or filtering face-piece respirators (known as FFP2 masks), in shops and on public transport.

Italy: Lockdown measures to continue

Until 30 April, all of Italy’s regions are in either red or orange zones, the two highest-risk categories.

In red zones, all schools and universities are closed, people can only move around for essential reasons, only essential shops are open and restaurants, cafes and bars can offer takeaway or delivery services.

The same rules on restaurants apply in orange zones as well, but shops, hairdressers, beauticians and schools can remain open (with partial distance learning for older pupils).

A curfew between 22:00 and 05:00 remains in place nationwide, all non-essential travel between regions is banned and masks are compulsory in all public spaces, indoors and outdoors.

Students and a teacher sit in a classroom in Rome, wearing masks and socially distancingimage copyrightReuters
image captionSchools in Italy are now shut again in red zones

Denmark: Proposals for “corona passes”

The Danish government has proposed a “corona pass” for everyone over the age of 15.

The pass, available on mobile phone and on paper, will show whether people have been vaccinated, previously infected or have had a negative test in the past 72 hours.

It will enable people to fulfil the requirements to go to the hairdresser, a restaurant or elsewhere, as the country gradually lifts restrictions.

In Copenhagen, hairdressers and tattooists can now reopen and theme parks and zoos are already open.

If the situation allows, small shopping centres will open from 13 April, outdoor eating at cafes and restaurants will be allowed from 21 April, along with bigger shopping centres. Cinemas and indoor dining could resume on 6 May.

Greece: Opening for tourism in mid-May

The Greek government announced the opening of borders on 14 May for all travellers who have been vaccinated or who provide a negative coronavirus test.

Meanwhile, some lockdown measures are being eased. The nationwide curfew now starts at 21:00 both at the weekend and during the week. The earlier weekend start time was 19:00.

Hair and beauty salons can operate by appointment while parks are open to public, with social distancing measures in place and mandatory use of a face mask.

People wearing face masks walk their dog in Athens, Greeceimage copyrightAnadolu Agency via Getty Images
image captionPeople wearing face masks walk their dog in Athens

Poland: Schools and businesses closed

Non-essential shops are closed and there are strict limits on the number of people allowed in essential shops.

Schools and nurseries are closed.

Hairdressers, beauty salons and sports facilities (except for professionals) are also closed.

The Czech Republic: Some children allowed back at school

One of the hardest-hit countries in the EU, the Czech Republic is beginning a slight relaxation of some lockdown measures.

From 12 April, primary schools are reopening for lower-grade pupils. Higher primary grades, high schools and universities will continue with distance-learning. Kindergartens will reopen for the pre-school year only.

Most shops will remain shut, but stationery and children’s clothes shops as well as farmers’ markets will be allowed to open.

Spain: Curfew and other measures to continue

Travelling between different provinces has been allowed to restart.

There is also a curfew from 23:00 to 06:00, although the regions can bring this forward to 22:00 if they wish.

A maximum of six people are allowed to meet in open public spaces, four in closed areas and no mixing of households is allowed in private homes.

Anyone aged over six must wear a face mask in all indoor and outdoor public spaces.

Belgium: Lockdown continues

Primary and secondary schools, as well as universities, are closed until 19 April.

Non-essential shops are open, but only by appointment. Hairdressers, beauty salons and massage salons are closed.

All non-essential travel remains banned.

Portugal: Some easing of restrictions

Portugal started to ease some of the lockdown measures from 15 March, with the reopening of some businesses and nurseries and primary schools for classroom teaching.

Museums, secondary schools and universities could be reopened on 19 April, if the situation allows.

People walking by a closed restaurant in Lisbon in Januaryimage copyrightEPA
image captionLockdown in Lisbon

Netherlands: Lockdown and curfew continue

Lockdown rules have been extended until 20 April.

A curfew is in place from 22:00 until 04:30.

Secondary school pupils are now having lessons at school for at least one day a week, and from 26 April university students will be able to attend at least one day of classes as well.

Hairdressers and other close-contact professions (apart from sex workers) have reopened, and shops can open to customers by appointment.

Bars and restaurants remain closed, along with non-essential shops. Gatherings of more than two people are banned.

The government says people should not book holidays abroad until at least the middle of May.

Ireland: Gradual reopening after Easter

From 12 April, people will be able to travel anywhere within their own county.

No visitors are currently allowed in private homes or gardens unless it is for the care of children, the elderly or those who are vulnerable. Weddings are limited to six people and funerals to 10.

But, from mid-April, outdoor meetings of two households will be allowed and two fully vaccinated people will be able to meet indoors.

Woman passing a shop in Dublin Irelandimage copyrightReuters

Sweden: New government coronavirus powers

Sweden tried to avoid imposing rules when other countries were in lockdown, but new emergency law now give the government the power to impose coronavirus-related curbs for the first time.

Until now, the Swedish government has relied mostly on the public following official health recommendations voluntarily.

Shops and gyms are open but must limit numbers of people.

A maximum of eight are allowed to gather in public and in private. At funerals, up to 20 participants are allowed.

There is a rule of four in restaurants and bars. Table service is allowed until 20:30 and only takeaway after that.

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